What Is Type 1 Diabetes? | Symptoms | Causes | Risk Factors

Type 1 Diabetes


The type 1 diabetic disorder affects your immune system and eliminates insulin-producing cells within the pancreas. These cells are known as beta cells. The condition is typically detected in young and children people, previously known as juvenile diabetes.

Secondary diabetes is similar to type 1 diabetes, but beta cells are destroyed by another cause like a condition or injury to the pancreas rather than through the immune system.

These two conditions are distinct in type 2 diabetes, in which the body doesn’t respond to insulin in the way it does.

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms

The signs are usually subtle, but they can also be severe. These include:

  • Extreme thirst
  • More hungry (especially when eating)
  • Dry mouth
  • Vomiting and upset stomach
  • Frequent urination
  • Unproved weight loss even though eating well and you feel full
  • Fatigue
  • Blurry vision
  • Exhausted, labored breathing (your doctor might call this Kussmaul respiration)
  • Skin infections that frequently occur or urinary tract vagina
  • Mood changes or crankiness
  • Bedwetting in children who’s been dry during the night

signs of an emergency with type 1 diabetes :

  • The shaking and the confusion
  • Rapid breathing
  • A fruity scent to your breath
  • Belly pain
  • Perception loss (rare)

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

Insulin, a hormonal substance that assists in the movement of sugar or glucose in the tissues of your body. Cells use it to create fuel.

The damage to beta cells caused by type 1 diabetes can throw the whole process off. The glucose doesn’t get into cells since insulin can’t perform the job. Instead, it accumulates in your blood, and your cells are starved. This leads to the blood sugar to rise and can cause:


If you have excess sugar in your bloodstream, you’ll pee more. This is your body’s method to get rid of sugar. A significant amount of water is released with this urine, causing your body to become dry.

Weight loss.

The glucose released in the process of urination carries calories along with it. This is why people who have diabetes can lose weight. Dehydration is another factor.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

If your body cannot produce enough glucose to fuel its cells, it begins to break the fat cells instead. These create ketones, chemicals. The liver can release the glucose stored to assist you. But your body cannot utilize the sugar without insulin, and it is absorbed into your  blood, as do acidic ketones. The combination of glucose, dehydration, and acid buildup is referred to as ketoacidosis. It can be life-threatening if it is not treated promptly.

Damage to your body

As time passes, high levels of glucose in your blood may harm the nerves as well as the blood vessels that line your kidneys, eyes and even your heart. They also can make it more likely for you to develop hardened arteries or atherosclerosis, resulting in heart attacks or strokes.

There’s no way to stop Type 1 Diabetes. Doctors don’t have all the factors that trigger it.                                          However, they do know that genes are a factor.

It is also known that it is possible to develop type 1 diabetes if something in your environment, such as viruses, prompts the immune system to target the pancreas.

The majority of people suffering from type 1 diabetes exhibit symptoms of this attack known as autoantibodies. They’re present in virtually all people who suffer from the disease when elevated blood sugar levels.

Type 1 diabetes may occur alongside other autoimmune conditions like Graves’ disease, also known as vitiligo.

Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors

Just 5 per cent of patients who have diabetes suffer from type 1. It affects females and males equally. There is a higher chance of having it if:

  • Are younger than
  • Are they white?
  • Siblings or parents who have type 1

Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis

If your doctor suspects that you have type one diabetes, they’ll examine the levels of your blood sugar. They might look at your urine glucose levels or the chemicals your body produces if you lack insulin.

Type 1 Diabetes Treatment

Patients with type 1 diabetes can live long and healthy lives. It is essential to check the levels of your blood sugar. Your physician will provide you with an appropriate range of numbers that you must stay within. Modify your insulin levels, foods, and activities as needed.

Every person with type 1 diabetes has to take insulin shots to regulate their blood sugar levels.

When your doctor discusses insulin, they’ll talk about three key points:

  • “Onset” is how long it takes for it to reach your bloodstream before it begins to decrease the sugar levels in your blood.
  • “Peak time” is when insulin is doing its best work to lower your blood sugar levels.
  • “Duration” is how long it continues to work after it has begun.

There are a variety of insulin types available.

  • Rapid-acting begins to work within 15 minutes. It peaks around 1 hour after taking it and then works for about 2 to 4 hours.
  • Regular or short-acting get to work in 30 minutes. The peak is in between 2 to 3 hours. It continues to work for between 3 and 6 hours.
  • Intermediate-acting will not enter your bloodstream between 2 and 4 hours following the injection. The peak is between 4 and 12 hours and can last over 12 to 18 hours.
  • Long-acting drugs take up to a few hours to be absorbed into your system. It lasts approximately 24 hours.

Your doctor might begin you with two shots per day with two different types of insulin. In the future, you may require additional shots.

The majority of insulin comes in a glass bottle referred to as a vial. It is drained using the syringe, which has needles and then gives yourself the shot. Certain kinds are available in the form of a prefilled pen. Another type is inhaled. It can also be gotten through a pump, an instrument that delivers it to the body via a tiny tube. Your doctor can help you choose the right type of medication and the method of delivery that is most suitable for you.

Lifestyle Changes

  • Exercise is an essential part of treatment for Type 1. However, it’s not as easy as running. Exercise affects your blood sugar levels. This means you need to be aware of your insulin dosage and the food you consume during any activity, including small tasks around the house or in the yard.
  • Knowing is the key to power. Examine your blood sugar levels before, during, and following any activity to determine what it does to your body. Certain things can make your levels rise; other items will not. You can reduce the amount of insulin you take or eat snacks with carbohydrates to prevent it from getting to a low level.
  • When your sugar level levels are high, above 250 mg/dL, you should check for ketones, which are acids that result from elevated sugar levels. If your levels are normal, it’s safe to go. If they’re in the high range, you should skip the exercise.
  • It is also essential to know the way food choices affect your blood sugar levels. When you are aware of the roles that carbohydrates, fats, and proteins play, you can develop an appropriate diet plan that will help keep your blood sugar levels in the right place. A certified dietitian or diabetes educator can assist you in starting.

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Type 1 diabetes could result in other complications, mainly if not controlled. These complications include:

  • Heart disease. Diabetes puts you at risk of blood clots along with high cholesterol and blood pressure. This can cause chest pain and stroke, heart attack and heart disease.
  • Skin issues. Patients with diabetes are more likely to develop fungal or bacterial infections. The condition can also lead to skin rashes or blisters.
  • Gum Disease. The absence of saliva, excessive plaque, and poor blood circulation can lead to oral issues.
  • Pregnancy problems. Women who have type 1 diabetes are at greater risk of having an early birth or stillbirth, congenital disabilities, and preeclampsia.
  • Retinopathy. This eye issue is found in around 80% of adults who have had Type 1 Diabetes for longer than 15 years. It’s uncommon before puberty, regardless of how long you’ve been suffering from the condition. To stop it from happening — and to maintain your eyesight, maintain a healthy control over blood sugar, blood pressure, cholesterol, blood pressure and triglycerides.
  • Kidney problems. Between 20 and 30 per cent of those who have type 1 diabetes develop the condition known as Nephropathy. The risk increases as time passes. It’s more likely to manifest between 15 and 25 years later than the beginning of diabetes. It may lead to severe issues, such as heart disease and kidney failure.
  • A lack of circulation of blood as well as nerve injury. The damaged nerves and blood vessels cause loss of sensation and decrease blood flow towards your foot. This increases the risk of suffering an injury and makes it more difficult for wounds and open sores to heal. If this happens, it could result in the loss of the leg. Damage to nerves can result in digestive issues like nausea, vomiting, or diarrhoea.

It is possible to take steps to avoid issues.

  • Try your best to maintain your blood sugar levels under the control of your blood sugar.
  • Keep track of your blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
  • Exercise and eat well.
  • If you are a smoker, stop.
  • Make sure you take care of your feet as well as your teeth.
  • Get regular dental, medical and vision tests.